msmarasmus

msmarasmus:

HISTORY MEME 8/10 -O B J E C T S (1/8)

ACT OF INDEPENDENCE OF LITHUANIA

The Act of Independence of Lithuania or Act of February 16 was signed by the Council of Lithuania on February 16, 1918, proclaiming the restoration of an independent State of Lithuania, governed by democratic principles, with Vilnius as its capital. The Act was signed by all twenty representatives, chaired by Jonas Basanavičius. The Act of February 16 was the result of a series of resolutions on the issue, including one issued by the Vilnius Conference and the Act of January 8. The path to the Act was long and complex because the German Empire exerted pressure on the Council to form an alliance. The Council had to carefully maneuver between the Germans, whose troops were present in Lithuania, and the demands of the Lithuanian people.

The immediate effects of the announcement of Lithuania’s re-establishment of independence were limited. Publication of the Act was prohibited by the German authorities, and the text was distributed and printed illegally. The work of the Council was hindered, and Germans remained in control over Lithuania. The situation changed only when Germany lost World War I in the fall of 1918. In November 1918 the first Cabinet of Lithuania was formed, and the Council of Lithuania gained control over the territory of Lithuania. Independent Lithuania, although it would soon be battling the Wars of Independence, became a reality.

While the Act’s original document has been lost, its legacy continues. The laconic Act is the legal basis for the existence of modern Lithuania, both during the interwar period and since 1990. The Act formulated the basic constitutional principles that were and still are followed by all Constitutions of Lithuania. The Act itself was a key element in the foundation of Lithuania’s re-establishment of independence in 1990. Lithuania, breaking away from the Soviet Union, stressed that it was simply re-establishing the independent state that existed between the world wars and that the Act never lost its legal power.

haitianhistory

haitianhistory:

(Haitian) History Meme | Seven Pairings → Alexandre Pétion &
Simón Bolívar

In 1816, Simón Bolívar requested assistance from the president of Southern Haiti, Alexandre Pétion, to defeat the Spanish in what would become Gran Colombia. Haiti, the second independent state in the Americas, was particularly sensible to revolutionary changes in the region and especially those presented as anti-colonial struggles. Alexandre Pétion thus guaranteed both political and military assistance to Bolívar in exchange that manumission be given to all black slaves present in newly liberated territories by Bolívar’s army. While Bolívar was surprised by Pétion’s humble request and demanded that his help be disclosed on official papers, Pétion refused and insisted that his name and role in Latin American revolutions remained unmentioned. (Historians have noted that Pétion was perhaps fearful of a reprisal from Spain if Haiti’s role was publicly acknowledged.) Whatever it may be, the libertador never completely fulfilled this promise. Indeed, Bolívar found himself at odds with other political figures in regards to the question of slavery. In 1820 however, Bolívar did free his own slaves, perhaps as a sign that he had not forgotten his promise to (the now deceased) Alexandre Pétion.     Source / Source 

baratheonsss
baratheonsss:

History Meme Men
Şehzade Mustafa Muhlisi
 (Turkish pronunciation: [ʃehzaːˈde mustaˈfa muhliˈsi]) (1515, Manisa – October 6, 1553, Konya), was the prince of Manisa from 1533 to 1541 and the prince of Amasya. He was Suleiman the Magnificent's first-born son by Mahidevran Sultan. Şehzade Mustafa was the apparent heir to the Ottoman throne and a very popular prince among the people of Anatolia
Mustafa was born in 1515 in Manisa to Suleiman I the Magnificent and his consort Mahidevran Sultan, while Suleiman was still a prince. Mustafa experienced problems in his relationship with his father since very early in his life. He was the first-born son and therefore the apparent heir to the throne, but his father, according to some historians, was more interested in Mustafa’s younger half-brother Şehzade Mehmed, the eldest son of Hürrem Sultan, His father’s treatment further displeased Mustafa. Then, he faced a second shock after being sent to Amasya from the more prominent Manisa. The rule of Manisa was given to Mehmed. However, after he was sent to Amasya, Mustafa got the news of an edict written by Suleiman. To Mustafa’s pleasant surprise, It indicated that Mustafa was the only heir to the throne; Suleiman had sent him to Amasya not because he did not want him to be his heir, but in order to defend the east coast of the Ottoman Empire and learn how to manage a large empire.[1] This edict also relieved the Ottoman army and people, as Şehzade Mustafa was the popular successor to the throne.
In Amasya, he got the news of the death of his brother Mehmed. It seemed like all barriers between the throne and Mustafa were gone, but he still faced another challenge. Another brother of Mustafa, Şehzade Bayezid, was sent to Konya for his sanjak assignment.
It was a critical decision, as Bayezid’s mother was also Hürrem Sultan, the mother of the late Mehmed. Her support of her own son, Bayezid, made Mustafa’s political career difficult, but he successfully ruled Amasya for 12 years. In 1547, during Sultan Suleiman’s Elkas Campaign, the sultan met with his sons Selim, Bayezid, and Mustafa in different places and talked to them about the political situation. It was long after the death of Mehmed, but the race between the three princes was still going on. Selim was sent to Anatolia as the prince of Manisa in 1544.[2]
Mustafa’s life was now in danger, as Hürrem Sultan and grand vizier Rüstem Pasha made a court alliance against him in favor of Hürrem’s sons,Bayezid and Selim.
Conspiracy
According to contemporary popular belief, Hürrem Sultan prepared a conspiracy to overthrow Mustafa.[3][4] Her partner in this plot was Rüstem Pasha.[5]

Rüstem Pasha sent one of Suleiman’s most trusted men to report that since Suleiman was not at the head of the army, the soldiers thought the time had come to depose him and put a younger prince on the throne, whilst spreading rumors that Mustafa had proved receptive to the idea. Suleiman did not believe the news at first, but he became furious when he heard it from a trusted source, Rüstem Pasha
Execution
During Suleiman’s Persian campaign, his army settled in Ereğli for a while. While Suleiman’s army was in Ereğli, Rüstem Pasha made an offer to Mustafa to join his father’s army. At the same time he warned Suleiman and persuaded him that Mustafa was coming to kill him.[7]

Mustafa accepted Rüstem Pasha’s offer and assembled his army to join his father’s. Suleiman saw this as a threat and ordered the execution of his son. When Mustafa entered his father’s tent to meet with him, Suleiman’s guards attacked Mustafa, and after a long struggle they killed him using a bow-string

baratheonsss:

History Meme Men

Şehzade Mustafa Muhlisi

 (Turkish pronunciation: [ʃehzaːˈde mustaˈfa muhliˈsi]) (1515, Manisa – October 6, 1553, Konya), was the prince of Manisa from 1533 to 1541 and the prince of Amasya. He was Suleiman the Magnificent's first-born son by Mahidevran SultanŞehzade Mustafa was the apparent heir to the Ottoman throne and a very popular prince among the people of Anatolia

Mustafa was born in 1515 in Manisa to Suleiman I the Magnificent and his consort Mahidevran Sultan, while Suleiman was still a prince. Mustafa experienced problems in his relationship with his father since very early in his life. He was the first-born son and therefore the apparent heir to the throne, but his father, according to some historians, was more interested in Mustafa’s younger half-brother Şehzade Mehmed, the eldest son of Hürrem SultanHis father’s treatment further displeased Mustafa. Then, he faced a second shock after being sent to Amasya from the more prominent Manisa. The rule of Manisa was given to Mehmed. However, after he was sent to Amasya, Mustafa got the news of an edict written by Suleiman. To Mustafa’s pleasant surprise, It indicated that Mustafa was the only heir to the throne; Suleiman had sent him to Amasya not because he did not want him to be his heir, but in order to defend the east coast of the Ottoman Empire and learn how to manage a large empire.[1] This edict also relieved the Ottoman army and people, as Şehzade Mustafa was the popular successor to the throne.

In Amasya, he got the news of the death of his brother Mehmed. It seemed like all barriers between the throne and Mustafa were gone, but he still faced another challenge. Another brother of Mustafa, Şehzade Bayezid, was sent to Konya for his sanjak assignment.

It was a critical decision, as Bayezid’s mother was also Hürrem Sultan, the mother of the late Mehmed. Her support of her own son, Bayezid, made Mustafa’s political career difficult, but he successfully ruled Amasya for 12 years. In 1547, during Sultan Suleiman’s Elkas Campaign, the sultan met with his sons Selim, Bayezid, and Mustafa in different places and talked to them about the political situation. It was long after the death of Mehmed, but the race between the three princes was still going on. Selim was sent to Anatolia as the prince of Manisa in 1544.[2]

Mustafa’s life was now in danger, as Hürrem Sultan and grand vizier Rüstem Pasha made a court alliance against him in favor of Hürrem’s sons,Bayezid and Selim.

Conspiracy

According to contemporary popular belief, Hürrem Sultan prepared a conspiracy to overthrow Mustafa.[3][4] Her partner in this plot was Rüstem Pasha.[5]

Rüstem Pasha sent one of Suleiman’s most trusted men to report that since Suleiman was not at the head of the army, the soldiers thought the time had come to depose him and put a younger prince on the throne, whilst spreading rumors that Mustafa had proved receptive to the idea. Suleiman did not believe the news at first, but he became furious when he heard it from a trusted source, Rüstem Pasha

Execution

During Suleiman’s Persian campaign, his army settled in Ereğli for a while. While Suleiman’s army was in Ereğli, Rüstem Pasha made an offer to Mustafa to join his father’s army. At the same time he warned Suleiman and persuaded him that Mustafa was coming to kill him.[7]

Mustafa accepted Rüstem Pasha’s offer and assembled his army to join his father’s. Suleiman saw this as a threat and ordered the execution of his son. When Mustafa entered his father’s tent to meet with him, Suleiman’s guards attacked Mustafa, and after a long struggle they killed him using a bow-string

mrsbeefheart
History Meme - 3/6 Women - The Radium Girls 
"Not to worry," their bosses told them. "If you swallow any radium, it’ll make your cheeks rosy." The women at Radium Dial sometimes painted their teeth and faces and then turned off the lights for a laugh.

From: ‘Radium Girls’ By Martha Irvine, Associated Press, Buffalo News, 1998

The US Radium Corporation a factory in Orange, New Jersey around 1917 employed young women as painters to paint radium on the dials on watchers. The girls would use their lips to paint the brushes and with every time they painted their brushes, they would ingest a small portion of the radium.
Radium is an alpha particle and can do severe damage once ingested. The Radium moved to the bone and continue to emit radiation for the rest of the girl’s lives because of the long half-life of Radium. It damaged the cells by the none and caused bone Cancer in many of the girls.
During the 1920s, a group of these women sued the US Radium Corporation. Some of the victims won a small portion of money thus becoming the first to receive compensation for occupational injury.

(read more here)

themyskira

themyskira:

history meme » 4/7 women » Mary Mallon, aka “Typhoid Mary”

Mary Mallon was fifteen when she left her poverty-stricken home in Ireland for the United States. Arriving in New York City, she found work as a domestic servant, eventually proving capable enough in the kitchen to gain a better-paid situation as a cook. She was, by all accounts, an excellent cook who took pride in her work and found employment in the households of a number of wealthy New York families.

She was also a healthy carrier of typhoid fever: she had the disease, but showed no outward symptoms, and had been unknowingly transmitted typhoid bacteria to others. Sanitary engineer George Soper was the first person to make the connection, after discovering that almost all of the households in which Mary had worked over the previous ten years had been visited by typhoid while she had been employed there. Unfortunately, when he approached her, he only succeeded in scaring the hell out of her.

Mary was not an unintelligent woman. She was literate and well-read, with a sharp mind. But at the time, many still did not understand how germs caused disease, and the concept of asymptomatic carriers was brand new science. So when a strange man burst into her kitchen, told her she was making people sick and asked her for a stool sample, she was frightened, and offended, and angry. She chased him out of the house with a carving knife.

Having refused to cooperate with Soper’s inquiries, Mary was forcibly taken into custody by the New York City Health Department. If her situation had been different, she may have been treated more sympathetically. But Mary had the disadvantage of being a lower-class woman and an Irish immigrant, at a time when none of those things were respected. What’s more, she was outspoken; and, scandalously, she was unmarried and living with her male lover.

Mary remained defiant throughout her imprisonment. She was asked to consent to surgery to remove her gallbladder; she refused. She was told she could go free if she promised not to cook; she refused that as well. She wrote letter after letter petitioning for her freedom, began sending stool samples to a private lab for analysis, engaged a lawyer and unsuccessfully attempted to sue the health department for unlawfully confining her. “I have never had typhoid in my life and have always been healthy,” she told one newspaper reporter. “Why should I be banished like a leper and compelled to live in solitary confinement?”

In 1910, after three years in quarantine, Mary was allowed to walk free on the condition that she no longer cook for others. From the health department’s perspective, this was a reasonable request — but for Mary, it meant that she was left with limited means to support herself. The only positions that were open to her were low- or unskilled work, all of them offering lower wages than her previous jobs. Eventually, a combination of fiscal hardship and scorn for the health claims she’d never really believed drove her to seek employment as a cook under a false name.

In 1915, Mary was discovered and arrested after a typhoid outbreak at New York’s Sloane Hospital for Women caught health officials’ attention. She had been employed there as a cook. Two people had died. Public opinion turned against her, and she was returned to quarantine on North Brother Island, where she remained for the rest of her life.

vaticanmeos

vaticanmeos:

history meme - one war (1/1)

The Cold War (1947-1981) was a sustained period of conflict, primarily between the USSR and the USA. Spurred on by continuing tensions from the end of WWII, The Cold War was a clash of ideologies - communism (Soviet Russia) vs. capitalism (America), with each side vying for dominance in a bitter power struggle. The term ‘Cold War’ comes not from Russia’s climate, but instead refers to the lack of actual army-to-army warfare taking place. Instead, both counties fought for their beliefs through technological advances such as the space and arms races, while their client states fought in proxy wars - e.g. Vietnam and Korea.

What may have eventually ensured that The Cold War didn’t become ‘hot’ was the impending threat of nuclear warfare. Both the USSR and the USA had frantically stockpiled as many nuclear weapons as possible in the struggle to be the superior military force, but the threat atom bombs posed was not so well known until 1952, when America exploded the H-Bomb; 2500 times more powerful than that dropped in Hiroshima. Russia followed suit, possessing their own H-Bomb by the following year. Suddenly, the world was a much more dangerous place. Both nations knew that if they were to fire their missiles, the enemy would respond immediately; resulting in wide-spread mass destruction for them both. As Soviet leader Nikita Chrushev said: “The survivors of a nuclear war would envy the dead.” [+more]

englandsdreaming

motherfuckingriverrun:

Born August 13, 1926 near Birán, Cuba, Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz is a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who was Prime Minister of Cuba from 1959 to 1976, and President from 1976 to 2008. The illegitimate son of a wealthy farmer, Castro adopted leftist anti-imperialist politics while studying law at the University of Havana. After participating in rebellions against right-wing governments in the Dominican Republic and Colombia, he planned the overthrow of the United States-backed military junta of Cuban president Fulgencio Batista, and served a year’s imprisonment in 1953 after a failed attack on the Moncada Barracks. On release he traveled to Mexico, where he formed a revolutionary group with his brother Raúl and friend Che Guevara, the 26th of July Movement. Returning to Cuba, Castro led the Cuban Revolution which ousted Batista in 1959, and brought his own assumption of military and political power.

Alarmed by his revolutionary credentials and friendly relations with the Soviet Union, the U.S. governments of Dwight D. Eisenhower and John F. Kennedy unsuccessfully attempted to remove him, by economic blockade, assassination and counter-revolution, including the Bay of Pigs invasionof 1961. Countering these threats, Castro formed an economic and military alliance with the Soviets, and allowed them to place nuclear weapons on the island, sparking the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962.

In 1961 Castro proclaimed the socialist nature of his administration, with Cuba becoming a one-party state under Communist Party rule; the first of its kind in the western hemisphere. Socialist reforms introducing central economic planning and expanding healthcare and education were accompanied by state control of the press and the suppression of internal dissent. Abroad, Castro supported foreign revolutionary groups in the hope of toppling world capitalism, sending Cuban troops to fight in the Yom Kippur War, Ogaden War, and Angolan Civil War. Following the Soviet Union’s dissolution in 1991, Castro led Cuba into its economic “Special Period”, before forging alliances in the Latin American Pink Tide – namely with Hugo Chávez’s Venezuela – and joining the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas in 2006. Due to failing health, in 2006 he transferred his responsibilities to Vice-President Raúl Castro, who formally assumed the presidency in 2008.

Castro is a controversial and divisive world figure, lauded by his supporters as a champion of socialism, anti-imperialism, humanitarianism, and environmentalism, but viewed by his critics as a dictator who has overseen multiple human rights abuses, an exodus of millions of Cubans, and the impoverishment of the country’s economy. Through his actions and his writings he has significantly influenced the politics of various individuals and groups across the world.

history meme pt. 2 - [2/7 leaders] - Fidel Castro

lalaylar-deactivated20140605

The Lady Of Cao || Female Rulers of the Ancient World 
La Dama de Cao or Lady of Cao was an enigmatic female ruler who reigned over one of the most important pre-Incan civilizations on the north coast of Peru: The Moche. Centuries ago in the Sechura Desert of northern Peru — one of the most arid and brutal environments on our planet — the Moche people developed an equally brutal culture where women, or more precisely priestesses, acted as queens.  One of these women was the Lady of Cao, who reigned over the Moche approximately 1,600 years ago. At the time of her tomb’s discovery, her mummified body was found surrounded by military artifacts — including war clubs and spear throwers that were usually reserved for powerful men — and ornaments made of gold, silver, turquoise and other precious metals. The unusual mix of ornamental and military artifacts confirmed that she was a figure of extreme importance to the Moche people and second only to the gods.  It is now known that the Lady of Cao died while giving birth when she was between the ages of 25 and 30 and her body was so well preserved that today it is still possible to observe the complex tattoos that cover her arms, ankles and fingers.

The Lady Of Cao || Female Rulers of the Ancient World

La Dama de Cao or Lady of Cao was an enigmatic female ruler who reigned over one of the most important pre-Incan civilizations on the north coast of Peru: The Moche.

Centuries ago in the Sechura Desert of northern Peru — one of the most arid and brutal environments on our planet — the Moche people developed an equally brutal culture where women, or more precisely priestesses, acted as queens.

One of these women was the Lady of Cao, who reigned over the Moche approximately 1,600 years ago. At the time of her tomb’s discovery, her mummified body was found surrounded by military artifacts — including war clubs and spear throwers that were usually reserved for powerful men — and ornaments made of gold, silver, turquoise and other precious metals. The unusual mix of ornamental and military artifacts confirmed that she was a figure of extreme importance to the Moche people and second only to the gods.

It is now known that the Lady of Cao died while giving birth when she was between the ages of 25 and 30 and her body was so well preserved that today it is still possible to observe the complex tattoos that cover her arms, ankles and fingers.

rosasluxemburg
gaskells:

history meme; 3/5 assassinations/executions { sidónio pais }

Sidónio Pais, famously dubbed the President-King by Fernando Pessoa, was President of the Republic of Portugal for a period of only nine months, from April 1918 until December, in a dictatorship which some historians regard as proto-fascist, resorting to a political police, torture, censorship and the showmanship that Mussolini would popularize five years later. Combined with the large number of portuguese casualties in WWI, the situation caused a period of great political and social unrest which was violently repressed.
He survived an assassination attempt on the 5th of December only to be shot down nine days later, in the Rossio train station, headed to Porto. The shooter, José Júlio da Costa, broke the police line and fired, hiting the President in the arm and, fatally, in the stomach. José Júlio da Costa was captured and imprisoned without trial, dying 28 years later, although conspiracy theories still exist as to the motives and even true identity of the assassin.
Considered by some to be the first corruption of the Republican regime, the nine months of his government and subsequent death sparked a deep social and political crisis, which weakened the First Republic. It would eventually fall with the Military Dictatorship of 1926.

gaskells:

history meme; 3/5 assassinations/executions { sidónio pais }

Sidónio Pais, famously dubbed the President-King by Fernando Pessoa, was President of the Republic of Portugal for a period of only nine months, from April 1918 until December, in a dictatorship which some historians regard as proto-fascist, resorting to a political police, torture, censorship and the showmanship that Mussolini would popularize five years later. Combined with the large number of portuguese casualties in WWI, the situation caused a period of great political and social unrest which was violently repressed.

He survived an assassination attempt on the 5th of December only to be shot down nine days later, in the Rossio train station, headed to Porto. The shooter, José Júlio da Costa, broke the police line and fired, hiting the President in the arm and, fatally, in the stomach. José Júlio da Costa was captured and imprisoned without trial, dying 28 years later, although conspiracy theories still exist as to the motives and even true identity of the assassin.

Considered by some to be the first corruption of the Republican regime, the nine months of his government and subsequent death sparked a deep social and political crisis, which weakened the First Republic. It would eventually fall with the Military Dictatorship of 1926.

meketaten
meketaten:

History Meme: Four Lesser-Known Egyptian Royals [1/4] » Prince Rahotep

Prince Rahotep is thought to be the son of a pharaoh named Sneferu, and is thought to be the half-brother of Khufu, the pharaoh that would reign after Sneferu. He and his wife, Nofret, gained attention when their two magnificent statues were found in Rahotep’s mastaba in 1871, possibly built by Sneferu. What was interesting about the statues was the fact that rock crystal was used for the eyes on both of them. These rock crystals give the “illusion of the following eye”. It is noted that when workers first opened the tomb these statues were concealed in, through the faint light they looked alive and caused the workers to flee in terror. 

meketaten:

History Meme: Four Lesser-Known Egyptian Royals [1/4] » Prince Rahotep

Prince Rahotep is thought to be the son of a pharaoh named Sneferu, and is thought to be the half-brother of Khufu, the pharaoh that would reign after Sneferu. He and his wife, Nofret, gained attention when their two magnificent statues were found in Rahotep’s mastaba in 1871, possibly built by Sneferu. What was interesting about the statues was the fact that rock crystal was used for the eyes on both of them. These rock crystals give the “illusion of the following eye”. It is noted that when workers first opened the tomb these statues were concealed in, through the faint light they looked alive and caused the workers to flee in terror.