maiathebee
maiathebee:

The Tyndale Bible || 3/8 objects, history meme

Tyndale’s Bible is credited with being the first English translation to come directly from Hebrew and Greek texts and the first English biblical translation that was mass-produced as a result of new advances in the art of printing. In 1522, Tyndale illegally acquired a copy of Martin Luther’s New Testament in German. Imitating Luther’s work, but in English, the first recorded complete edition of his New Testament was published in 1526, with revisions following in 1534 and 1536.
Not only was the bible subversive for being written in English, but also the sort of English - “congregation” instead of “Church,” “elder” instead of “priest.”  The bible was banned and its author eventually was imprisoned and executed. However, while important for its place in England’s religious history, it is even more interesting as a linguistic record and for its influence on the English language.  An astonishing number of Tyndale’s phrases and forms are still in use today, including: “let there be…,” “the apple of his eye,” and “the powers that be.” (via)

maiathebee:

The Tyndale Bible || 3/8 objects, history meme

Tyndale’s Bible is credited with being the first English translation to come directly from Hebrew and Greek texts and the first English biblical translation that was mass-produced as a result of new advances in the art of printing. In 1522, Tyndale illegally acquired a copy of Martin Luther’s New Testament in German. Imitating Luther’s work, but in English, the first recorded complete edition of his New Testament was published in 1526, with revisions following in 1534 and 1536.

Not only was the bible subversive for being written in English, but also the sort of English - “congregation” instead of “Church,” “elder” instead of “priest.”  The bible was banned and its author eventually was imprisoned and executed. However, while important for its place in England’s religious history, it is even more interesting as a linguistic record and for its influence on the English language.  An astonishing number of Tyndale’s phrases and forms are still in use today, including: “let there be…,” “the apple of his eye,” and “the powers that be.” (via)

historicalsplendour

history meme - (1/10) moments

The Battle of Dybbøl (18 April 1864) was the key battle of the Second Schleswig War. In January 1864, Prussian and Austrian troops invaded Southern Jutland in Denmark following the annexation of the Duchy of Schleswig in November 1863. The Prussian army was remarkably better equipped than the defending Danish army but the Danes relied heavily on the fortification Dannevirke for their strength in battle. However, due to the thread of being outflanked the Danish army had to withdraw from the traditional fortified defence line of Dannevirke and under the cover of darkness, they marched to the ill-prepared Dybbøl Trenches.
On the morning of 18 April 1864, the Prussians moved into their positions at 2:00 am. At 10:00 am, the Prussian artillery bombardment of the trenches stopped and the Prussians charged through shelling from the Rolf Krake and thirteen minutes after the charge, the Prussian infantry had seized control of the first line of defence of the redoubts.The 8th brigade halted the Prussian advance with a counterattack but eventually a Prussian attack threw them back and the Prussians reached Dybbøl Mill. During this attack, the 8th brigade lost half their men. At 1:00 pm, the final resistance collapsed at the bridgehead in front of Sønderborg. 
During the Battle of Dybbøl about 3600 Danes and 1200 Prussians were either killed, wounded or disappeared. Every year on 18 April a national memorial is held in Dybbøl (+more).

history meme - (1/10) moments

The Battle of Dybbøl (18 April 1864) was the key battle of the Second Schleswig War. In January 1864, Prussian and Austrian troops invaded Southern Jutland in Denmark following the annexation of the Duchy of Schleswig in November 1863. The Prussian army was remarkably better equipped than the defending Danish army but the Danes relied heavily on the fortification Dannevirke for their strength in battle. However, due to the thread of being outflanked the Danish army had to withdraw from the traditional fortified defence line of Dannevirke and under the cover of darkness, they marched to the ill-prepared Dybbøl Trenches.

On the morning of 18 April 1864, the Prussians moved into their positions at 2:00 am. At 10:00 am, the Prussian artillery bombardment of the trenches stopped and the Prussians charged through shelling from the Rolf Krake and thirteen minutes after the charge, the Prussian infantry had seized control of the first line of defence of the redoubts.The 8th brigade halted the Prussian advance with a counterattack but eventually a Prussian attack threw them back and the Prussians reached Dybbøl Mill. During this attack, the 8th brigade lost half their men. At 1:00 pm, the final resistance collapsed at the bridgehead in front of Sønderborg.

During the Battle of Dybbøl about 3600 Danes and 1200 Prussians were either killed, wounded or disappeared. Every year on 18 April a national memorial is held in Dybbøl (+more).

thequeenofwar

thequeenofwar:

HISTORY MEME Natural disasters 1/2

The 1918 flu pandemic (January 1918 – December 1920) was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic
the first of the two pandemics involving H1N1 influenza virus (second one was Swine or Pig flu which broke out in 2009 and caused 17 000 deaths). However, Spanish flue was much more dangerous. It infected 500 million people across the world, including remote Pacific islands and the Arctic, and killed 50 to 100 million of them—three to five percent of the world’s population —making it one of the deadliest natural disasters in human history. 
The war was over, but most horrible things were yet to come. Most influenza outbreaks disproportionately kill juvenile, elderly, or already weakened patients; in contrast the 1918 pandemic predominantly killed previously healthy young adults. First officially recorded influenza victims (on large numbers) were 100 American soldiers. 
Some people might get confused by the name of pandemic. No, it did not start in Spain, however, due to war, America, Germany and France decreased the numbers of sick people in media. Spain was neutral, and media were free to inform society about horrible pandemic which spread all over the world. 
The deadliest was the second wave of flu. First one was typical flu, and victims were usually elder people, however, the second one in August, when it began in France, Sierra Leone and the United States, flu had mutated in much deadlier version, which took away young, healthy people. 
Those who get very ill stay home, and those mildly ill continue with their lives, preferentially spreading the mild strain. In the trenches, natural selection was reversed. Soldiers with a mild strain stayed where they were, while the severely ill were sent on crowded trains to crowded field hospitals, spreading the deadlier virus. The second wave began and the flu quickly spread around the world again.
After the lethal second wave struck in late 1918, new cases dropped abruptly – almost to nothing after the peak in the second wave.
margraery
dcnedehaan:


HISTORY MEME: [1/8] objects: The Rosetta Stone

A valuable key to the decipherment of hieroglyphs, the inscription on the Rosetta Stone is a decree passed by a council of priests. It is one of a series that affirm the royal cult of the 13-year-old Ptolemy V on the first anniversary of his coronation.
Soldiers in Napoleon’s army discovered the Rosetta Stone in 1799 while digging the foundations of an addition to a fort near the town of el-Rashid (Rosetta). On Napoleon’s defeat, the stone became the property of the British under the terms of the Treaty of Alexandria (1801) along with other antiquities that the French had found.
The Rosetta Stone has been exhibited in the British Museum since 1802, with only one break. Towards the end of the First World War, in 1917, when the Museum was concerned about heavy bombing in London, they moved it to safety along with other, portable, ‘important’ objects. The Rosetta Stone spent the next two years in a station on the Postal Tube Railway 50 feet below the ground at Holborn.

dcnedehaan:

HISTORY MEME: [1/8] objects: The Rosetta Stone

A valuable key to the decipherment of hieroglyphs, the inscription on the Rosetta Stone is a decree passed by a council of priests. It is one of a series that affirm the royal cult of the 13-year-old Ptolemy V on the first anniversary
of his coronation.

Soldiers in Napoleon’s army discovered the Rosetta Stone in 1799 while digging the foundations of an addition to a fort near the town of el-Rashid (Rosetta). On Napoleon’s defeat, the stone became the property of the British under the terms of the Treaty of Alexandria (1801) along with other antiquities that the French had found.

The Rosetta Stone has been exhibited in the British Museum since 1802, with only one break. Towards the end of the First World War, in 1917, when the Museum was concerned about heavy bombing in London, they moved it to safety along with other, portable, ‘important’ objects. The Rosetta Stone spent the next two years in a station on the Postal Tube Railway 50 feet below the ground at Holborn.

margraery
dcnedehaan:


HISTORY MEME: [1/8] objects: The Rosetta Stone

A valuable key to the decipherment of hieroglyphs, the inscription on the Rosetta Stone is a decree passed by a council of priests. It is one of a series that affirm the royal cult of the 13-year-old Ptolemy V on the first anniversary of his coronation.
Soldiers in Napoleon’s army discovered the Rosetta Stone in 1799 while digging the foundations of an addition to a fort near the town of el-Rashid (Rosetta). On Napoleon’s defeat, the stone became the property of the British under the terms of the Treaty of Alexandria (1801) along with other antiquities that the French had found.
The Rosetta Stone has been exhibited in the British Museum since 1802, with only one break. Towards the end of the First World War, in 1917, when the Museum was concerned about heavy bombing in London, they moved it to safety along with other, portable, ‘important’ objects. The Rosetta Stone spent the next two years in a station on the Postal Tube Railway 50 feet below the ground at Holborn.

dcnedehaan:

HISTORY MEME: [1/8] objects: The Rosetta Stone

A valuable key to the decipherment of hieroglyphs, the inscription on the Rosetta Stone is a decree passed by a council of priests. It is one of a series that affirm the royal cult of the 13-year-old Ptolemy V on the first anniversary
of his coronation.

Soldiers in Napoleon’s army discovered the Rosetta Stone in 1799 while digging the foundations of an addition to a fort near the town of el-Rashid (Rosetta). On Napoleon’s defeat, the stone became the property of the British under the terms of the Treaty of Alexandria (1801) along with other antiquities that the French had found.

The Rosetta Stone has been exhibited in the British Museum since 1802, with only one break. Towards the end of the First World War, in 1917, when the Museum was concerned about heavy bombing in London, they moved it to safety along with other, portable, ‘important’ objects. The Rosetta Stone spent the next two years in a station on the Postal Tube Railway 50 feet below the ground at Holborn.

thelegendends

thelegendends:

HISTORY MEME - FRANCE VERSION ♛ [05/06] women : Alexandra David-Néel (1868-1969)

Belgian-French explorer, spiritualist, Buddhist, anarchist and writer. She was born in Saint-Mandé, Val-de-Marne, and moved to Ixelles (Brussels) with her family at the age of six. During her childhood she had a very strong desire for freedom and spirituality. At the age of 18, she had already visited England, Switzerland and Spain on her own, and she was studying in Madame Blavatsky’s Theosophical Society. She joined various secret societies – she would reach the thirtieth degree in the mixed Scottish Rite of Freemasonry – while feminist and anarchist groups greeted her with enthusiasm. In 1899, Alexandra composed an anarchist treatise with a preface by the French geographer and anarchist Elisée Reclus. Publishers were, however, too terrified to publish the book, though her friend Jean Haustont printed copies himself and it was eventually translated into five languages. In 1890 and 1891, she traveled through India, returning only when she was running out of money. From 1895 to 1897 she was prima donna with a touring French opera company in Indochina, appearing at the Hanoi Opera House and elsewhere as La Traviata and Carmen. In Tunis in 1900 she met and lived with the railroad engineer Philippe Néel, marrying him in 1904. In 1911 Alexandra left Néel and traveled for the second time to India, to further her study of Buddhism. She was invited to the royal monastery of Sikkim, where she met Maharaj Kumar Sidkeong Tulku Namgyal. She became Sidkeong’s “confidante and spiritual sister”, perhaps his lover. She also met the 13th Dalai Lama twice in 1912, and had the opportunity to ask him many questions about Buddhism – a feat unprecedented for a European woman at that time. In the period 1914–1916 she lived in a cave in Sikkim, near the Tibetan border, learning spirituality, together with the young Sikkimese monk Aphur Yongden, who became her lifelong traveling companion, and whom she would later adopt. From there they trespassed into Tibetan territory, meeting the Panchen Lama in Shigatse. Sikkim was then a British protectorate and when the British authorities became aware of their presence Alexandra and Aphur were forced to leave the country. Unable to return to Europe in the middle of World War I, Alexandra and Yongden traveled to Japan. Travel to Tibet in 1924 In Lhasa in 1924 In Japan Alexandra met Ekai Kawaguchi, who had visited Lhasa in 1901 disguised as a Chinese doctor, and this inspired them to visit Lhasa disguised as pilgrims. After traversing China from east to west, they reached Lhasa in 1924, and spent two months there. Return to France in 1928 In 1928 Alexandra legally separated from Philippe, but they continued to exchange letters and he kept supporting her till his death in 1941. Alexandra settled in Digne (Provence), and during the next nine years she wrote books. In 1929, she published her most famous and beloved work, Mystiques et Magiciens du Tibet (Magic and Mystery in Tibet). In 1937, Yongden and Alexandra went to Tibet through the then Soviet Union, traveling there during the second World War. They eventually ended up in Tachienlu, where she continued her investigations of Tibetan sacred literature. The pair returned to France in 1946. Alexandra was then 78 years old. In 1955 Yongden died at age 56. Alexandra continued to study and write at Digne-les-Bains, till her death there at the age of nearly 101. According to her last will and testament, her ashes and those of Yongden were mixed together and dispersed in the Ganges in 1973 at Varanasi, by her friend Marie-Madeleine Peyronnet.

satinydean

castielspring:

HISTORY  MEME  |  (1/7)  OBJECTS  -  ITALIAN  CONSTITUTION

The Constitution of the Italian Republic (Italian: Costituzione della Repubblica italiana) was enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 22 December 1947, with 453 votes in favour and 62 against. The text, which has since been amended 14 times, was promulgated in the extraordinary edition of Gazzetta Ufficiale No. 298 on 27 December 1947. The Constituent Assembly was elected by universal suffrage on 2 June 1946, at the same time as a referendum on the abolition of the monarchy. The Constitution came into force on 1 January 1948, one century after the Statuto Albertino had been enacted.

The Constitutionis composed of 139 articles (five of which were later abrogated) and arranged into three main parts: Principi Fondamentali, the Fundamental Principles ; Part I concerning the Diritti e Doveri dei Cittadini, or Rights and Duties of Citizens; and Part II the Ordinamento della Repubblica, or Organisation of the Republic; followed by 18 Disposizioni transitorie e finali, the Transitory and Final Provisions.

satinydean

castielspring:

HISTORY  MEME  |  (1/8)  PLACES  -  RED  SQUARE  (MOSCOW

Red Square (Russian: Красная площадь, tr. Krásnaya Plóshchaď) is a city square in Moscow, Russia. The square separates the Kremlin, the former royal citadel and currently the official residence of the President of Russia, from a historic merchant quarter known as Kitai-gorod. Red Square is often considered the central square of Moscow and all of Russia, because Moscow’s major streets—which connect to Russia’s major highways—originate from the square.

The name Red Square does not originate from the pigment of the surrounding bricks (which, in fact, were whitewashed at certain times in history) nor from the link between the color red and communism. Rather, the name came about because the Russian word красная (krasnaya) can mean either “red” or “beautiful” (the latter being rather archaic; cf. прекрасная, prekrasnaya). This word, with the meaning “beautiful”, was originally applied to Saint Basil’s Cathedral and was subsequently transferred to the nearby square.

purgatorist

druzyquartz:

History Meme: 1/4 Presidents

William Henry Harrison was the 9th President of the United States as well as a seasoned politician and military officer. He was 68 years, 23 days old when inaugurated, the oldest president to take office until Ronald Reagan in 1981. Before election as president, Harrison served as the first territorial congressional delegate from the Northwest Territory, governor of the Indiana Territory, and later a U.S. representative and senator from Ohio. He originally gained national fame for leading U.S. forces against American Indians at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811, where he earned the nickname ”Tippecanoe”. As a general in the subsequent War of 1812, his most notable action was in the Battle of the Thames in 1813 which resulted in the death of Tecumseh and the dissolution of the Indian coalition which he led.

On March 26, Harrison became ill with a cold. According to the prevailing medical misconception of that time, it was believed that his illness was directly caused by the bad weather at his inauguration; however, Harrison’s illness did not arise until more than three weeks after the event. The cold worsened, rapidly turning to pneumonia and pleurisy. Harrison’s doctors tried cures, applying opium, castor oil, leeches, and Virginia snakeweed. But the treatments only made Harrison worse, and he became delirious. He died nine days after becoming ill, at 12:30 a.m. on April 4, 1841, of right lower lobe pneumonia, jaundice, and overwhelming septicemia. He was the first United States president to die in office. Harrison served the shortest term of any American president: March 4 – April 4, 1841, 30 days, 12 hours, and 30 minutes.

Harrison’s death revealed the flaws in the constitution’s clauses on presidential succession. The Constitution did not stipulate whether the vice president could serve the remainder of the president’s term, until the next election, or if emergency elections should be held. After a short period of debate, Congress passed a resolution that confirmed Harrison’s vice president, John Tyler, in the presidency for the remainder of Harrison’s term. Once established, this precedent of presidential succession remained in effect until the Twenty-fifth Amendment was ratified in 1967, which dealt with the finer points of succession.

purgatorist

druzyquartz:

History Meme: 3/3 Inventions

A sextant is an instrument used to measure the angle between any two visible objects. Its primary use is to determine the angle between a celestial object and the horizon which is known as the object’s altitude. The angle, and the time when it was measured, can be used to calculate a position line on a nautical or aeronautical chart. Common uses of the sextant include sighting the sun at solar noon and sighting Polaris at night (in the Northern Hemisphere), to find one’s latitude. A sextant can also be used to measure the lunar distance between the moon and another celestial object in order to determine Greenwich time which is important because it can then be used to determine the longitude.

Sir Isaac Newton invented the principle of the doubly reflecting navigation instrument, but never published it. Two men independently developed the octant around 1730: John Hadley, an English mathematician, and Thomas Godfrey, a glazier in Philadelphia. John Bird made the first sextant in 1757. The octant and later the sextant, replaced the Davis quadrant as the main instrument for navigation.